Monumanu/en

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Animals are in biology one of the 4 kingdoms of multi-celled based life. The walls of their cells are soft. It is difficult to define exactly which organisms are animals, but farout most of the animals they move, they breath, and they eat. Their food consists of plants (herbivores) or of other animals (carnivores).

The kingdom of celled living creatures[fatuʻi vahe | edit source]

Other organisms without distinct cells: bacteria, viruses, and so forth.

Top divisions in this kingdom[fatuʻi vahe | edit source]

  • spunges (parazoa) all their cells are practically the same
  • "remainder" (mesozoa) not sure, maybe this group does not exist at all
  • animals with differentiated organs (eumetazoa) they have intestines and more
    • radial symmetrical animals (radiata) their body is almost the same in all directions from the centre
      • phylum: stinging jellyfish (cnidaria) jellyfishes, corals, anemones, …
      • phylum: nonstinging jellyfish (ctenophora) small jellyfishes
    • reflective symmetrical animals (bilateria) the left and right of their body is almost the same
      • primordial mouth animals (protostomata) the first hole in their embryonal phase becomes the mouth, the second hole, if any, the anus
      • secondary mouth animals (deuterostomata) the first hole in their embryonal phase becomes the anus, the second hole the mouth

Alternative division[fatuʻi vahe | edit source]

There is a simpler division scheme possible, favoured by some scientists

  • spunges (parazoa)
  • radial symmetrical animals (radiata)
    • with its phyla the same as above
  • reflective symmetrical animals (bilateria)
    • primordial mouth animals ( protostomata)
      • with its phyla the same as above
    • secondary mouth animals (deuterostomata)
    • phylum: spinal corded animals (chordata) fishes, birds, quadrupeds, …

Notes[fatuʻi vahe | edit source]

Add the cavity animals (coelenterata): the spunges and radial symmetricals.

The levels of superphylum, phylum, and so on do not necessarily align in the tables.

Divions in traditional Tongan culture[fatuʻi vahe | edit source]

The division of living creaturs in traditional society was much simpler

  • manu — 'animals' used for any animal on the land, as such excluding fishes and shellfish
    • manupuna — 'birds', but also including insects
    • manu veʻefā — '4 feeted animals', mammals, reptiles
  • ika — 'fish' used for any larger animal in the sea, including turtles and whales, but not eels and jellyfish
  • fingota - 'shellfish' used for the remaining lifeforms in sea: shellfish, eels, spunges, seacucumbers, seastars and even seaweeds

The word monumanu was not used in former times, except as a derogatory term for manu. Flag of Tonga.svg FOKI